WCAG 2.1 Guidelines

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.1
Guideline WCAG 2.1 Success Criteria Name and Conformance Level WCAG 2.1 Success Criteria Description WCAG Version How to Meet the Criteria
1.1 Text Alternatives: Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language. 1.1.1 Non-text Content (A) All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose, except for the situations listed below.
• Controls, Input: If non-text content is a control or accepts user input, then it has a Name that describes its purpose. (Refer to Guideline 4.1 for additional requirements for controls and content that accepts user input.)
• Time-Based Media: If non-text content is time-based media, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content. (Refer to Guideline 1.2 for additional requirements for media.)
• Test: If non-text content is a test or exercise that would be invalid if presented in text, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.
• Sensory: If non-text content is primarily intended to create a specific sensory experience, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.
• CAPTCHA: If the purpose of non-text content is to confirm that content is being accessed by a person rather than a computer, then text alternatives that identify and describe the purpose of the non-text content are provided, and alternative forms of CAPTCHA using output modes for different types of sensory perception are provided to accommodate different disabilities.
• Decoration, Formatting, Invisible: If non-text content is pure decoration, is used only for visual formatting, or is not presented to users, then it is implemented in a way that it can be ignored by assistive technology.
WCAG 2.0 1.1.1 Non-text Content Techniques and Failures
1.2 Time-based Media: Provide alternatives for time-based media. 1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Pre-recorded) (A) For pre-recorded audio-only and pre-recorded video-only media, the following are true, except when the audio or video is a media alternative for text and is clearly labelled as such:
• Pre-recorded Audio-only: An alternative for time-based media is provided that presents equivalent information for pre-recorded audio-only content.
• Pre-recorded Video-only: Either an alternative for time-based media or an audio track is provided that presents equivalent information for pre-recorded video-only content.
WCAG 2.0 1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Pre-recorded) Techniques and Failures
  1.2.2 Captions (Pre-recorded) (A) Captions are provided for all pre-recorded audio content in synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labelled as such. WCAG 2.0 1.2.2 Captions (Pre-recorded) Techniques and Failures
  1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Pre-recorded) (A) An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the pre-recorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labelled as such. WCAG 2.0 1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Pre-recorded) Techniques and Failures
  1.2.4 Captions (Live) (AA) Captions are provided for all
live audio content in synchronized media .
WCAG 2.0 1.2.4 Captions (Live) Techniques and Failures
  1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded) (AA) Audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media.
WCAG 2.0 1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded) Techniques and Failures
1.3 Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure. 1.3.1 Info and Relationships (A) Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. WCAG 2.0 1.3.1 Info and Relationships Techniques and Failures
  1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence (A) When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically determined. WCAG 2.0 1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence Techniques and Failures
  1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics (A) Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics of components such as shape, size, visual location, orientation, or sound.

Note: For requirements related to color, refer to Guideline 1.4.
WCAG 2.0 1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics Techniques and Failures
  1.3.4 Orientation (AA) Content does not restrict its view and operation to a single display orientation, such as portrait or landscape, unless a specific display orientation is essential.

Note: Examples where a particular display orientation may be essential are a bank check, a piano application, slides for a projector or television, or virtual reality content where binary display orientation is not applicable
WCAG 2.1 1.3.4 Orientation Techniques and Failures
  1.3.5 Identify Input Purpose (AA) The purpose of each input field collecting information about the user can be programmatically determined when:

The input field serves a purpose identified in the Input Purposes for User Interface Components section; and
The content is implemented using technologies with support for identifying the expected meaning for form input data.
WCAG 2.1 1.3.5 Identify Input Purpose Techniques and Failures
1.4 Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background. 1.4.1 Use of Color (A) Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element.

Note: This success criterion addresses color perception specifically. Other forms of perception are covered in Guideline 1.3 including programmatic access to color and other visual presentation coding.
WCAG 2.0 1.4.1 Use of Color Techniques and Failures
  1.4.2 Audio Control (A) If any audio on a Web page plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, either a mechanism is available to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism is available to control audio volume independently from the overall system volume level.

Note: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether or not it is used to meet other success criteria) must meet this success criterion. See Conformance Requirement 5: Non-interference.
WCAG 2.0 1.4.2 Audio Control Techniques and Failures
  1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum) (AA) The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1, except for the following:

• Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1;
• Incidental: Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface component , that are pure decoration
, that are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.
• Logotypes: Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no minimum contrast requirement.
WCAG 2.0 1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum) Techniques and Failures
  1.4.4 Resize Text (AA) Except for captions and images of text, text can be resized without
assistive technology up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality.
WCAG 2.0 1.4.4 Resize Text Techniques and Failures
  1.4.5 Images of Text (AA) If the technologies being used can achieve the visual presentation, text is used to convey information rather than images of text
except for the following:

• Customizable: The image of text can be visually customized to the user's requirements;
• Essential: A particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed.

Note: Logotypes (text that is part of a logo or brand name) are considered essential.
WCAG 2.0 1.4.5 Images of Text Techniques and Failures
  1.4.10 Reflow (AA) Content can be presented without loss of information or functionality, and without requiring scrolling in two dimensions for:

•Vertical scrolling content at a width equivalent to 320 CSS pixels;
•Horizontal scrolling content at a height equivalent to 256 CSS pixels.
Except for parts of the content which require two-dimensional layout for usage or meaning.

Note: 320 CSS pixels is equivalent to a starting viewport width of 1280 CSS pixels wide at 400% zoom. For web content which are designed to scroll horizontally (e.g. with vertical text), the 256 CSS pixels is equivalent to a starting viewport height of 1024px at 400% zoom.

Note: Examples of content which require two-dimensional layout are images, maps, diagrams, video, games, presentations, data tables, and interfaces where it is necessary to keep toolbars in view while manipulating content.
WCAG 2.1 1.4.10 Reflow Techniques and Failures
  1.4.11 Non-text Contrast (AA) The visual presentation of the following have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1 against adjacent color(s):

•User Interface Components: Visual information required to identify user interface components and states, except for inactive components or where the appearance of the component is determined by the user agent and not modified by the author;
•Graphical Objects: Parts of graphics required to understand the content, except when a particular presentation of graphics is essential to the information being conveyed.
WCAG 2.1 1.4.11 Non-text Contrast Techniques and Failures
  1.4.12 Text Spacing (AA) In content implemented using markup languages that support the following text style properties, no loss of content or functionality occurs by setting all of the following and by changing no other style property:

•Line height (line spacing) to at least 1.5 times the font size;
•Spacing following paragraphs to at least 2 times the font size;
•Letter spacing (tracking) to at least 0.12 times the font size;
•Word spacing to at least 0.16 times the font size.

Exception: Human languages and scripts that do not make use of one or more of these text style properties in written text can conform using only the properties that exist for that combination of language and script.
WCAG 2.1 1.4.12 Text Spacing Techniques and Failures
  1.4.13 Content on Hover or Focus (AA) Where receiving and then removing pointer hover or keyboard focus triggers additional content to become visible and then hidden, the following are true:

•Dismissible: A mechanism is available to dismiss the additional content without moving pointer hover or keyboard focus, unless the additional content communicates an input error or does not obscure or replace other content;
•Hoverable: If pointer hover can trigger the additional content, then the pointer can be moved over the additional content without the additional content disappearing;
•Persistent: The additional content remains visible until the hover or focus trigger is removed, the user dismisses it, or its information is no longer valid.

Exception: The visual presentation of the additional content is controlled by the user agent and is not modified by the author.

Note: Examples of additional content controlled by the user agent include browser tooltips created through use of the HTML title attribute.

Note: Custom tooltips, sub-menus, and other nonmodal popups that display on hover and focus are examples of additional content covered by this criterion.
WCAG 2.1 1.4.13 Content on Hover or Focus Techniques and Failures
2.1 Keyboard Accessible: Make all functionality available from a keyboard. 2.1.1 Keyboard (A) All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user's movement and not just the endpoints.

Note 1: This exception relates to the underlying function, not the input technique. For example, if using handwriting to enter text, the input technique (handwriting) requires path-dependent input but the underlying function (text input) does not.

Note 2: This does not forbid and should not discourage providing mouse input or other input methods in addition to keyboard operation.
WCAG 2.0 2.1.1 Keyboard Techniques and Failures
  2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap (A) : If keyboard focus can be moved to a component of the page using a keyboard interface, then focus can be moved away from that component using only a keyboard interface, and, if it requires more than unmodified arrow or tab keys or other standard exit methods, the user is advised of the method for moving focus away.

Note: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion. See Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference.
WCAG 2.0 2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap Techniques and Failures
  2.1.4 Character Key Shortcuts (A) If a keyboard shortcut is implemented in content using only letter (including upper- and lower-case letters), punctuation, number, or symbol characters, then at least one of the following is true:

•Turn off: A mechanism is available to turn the shortcut off;
•Remap: A mechanism is available to remap the shortcut to use one or more non-printable keyboard characters (e.g. Ctrl, Alt, etc.);
•Active only on focus: The keyboard shortcut for a user interface component is only active when that component has focus.
WCAG 2.1 2.1.4 Character Key Shortcuts Techniques and Failures
2.2 Enough Time: Provide users enough time to read and use content. 2.2.1 Timing Adjustable (A) For each time limit that is set by the content, at least one of the following is true:

• Turn off: The user is allowed to turn off the time limit before encountering it; or
• Adjust: The user is allowed to adjust the time limit before encountering it over a wide range that is at least ten times the length of the default setting; or
• Extend: The user is warned before time expires and given at least 20 seconds to extend the time limit with a simple action (for example, "press the spacebar"), and the user is allowed to extend the time limit at least ten times; or
• Real-time Exception: The time limit is a required part of a real-time event (for example, an auction), and no alternative to the time limit is possible; or
• Essential Exception: The time limit is essential and extending it would invalidate the activity; or
• 20 Hour Exception: The time limit is longer than 20 hours.
Note: This success criterion helps ensure that users can complete tasks without unexpected changes in content or context that are a result of a time limit. This success criterion should be considered in conjunction with Success Criterion 3.2.1, which puts limits on changes of content or context as a result of user action.
WCAG 2.0 2.2.1 Timing Adjustable Techniques and Failures
  2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide (A) For moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information, all of the following are true:
• Moving, blinking, scrolling: For any moving, blinking or scrolling information that (1) starts automatically, (2) lasts more than five seconds, and (3) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it unless the movement, blinking, or scrolling is part of an activity where it is essential ; and
• Auto-updating: For any auto-updating information that (1) starts automatically and (2) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it or to control the frequency of the update unless the auto-updating is part of an activity where it is essential.
Note 1: For requirements related to flickering or flashing content, refer to Guideline 2.3.
Note 2: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion. See Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference.
Note 3: Content that is updated periodically by software or that is streamed to the user agent is not required to preserve or present information that is generated or received between the initiation of the pause and resuming presentation, as this may not be technically possible, and in many situations could be misleading to do so.
Note 4: An animation that occurs as part of a preload phase or similar situation can be considered essential if interaction cannot occur during that phase for all users and if not indicating progress could confuse users or cause them to think that content was frozen or broken.
WCAG 2.0 2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide Techniques and Failures
2.3 Seizures: Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures. 2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold (A) Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds.
Note: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion. See Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference.
WCAG 2.0 2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold Techniques and Failures
2.4 Navigable: Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are. 2.4.1 Bypass Blocks (A) A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages. WCAG 2.0 2.4.1 Bypass Blocks Techniques and Failures
  2.4.2 Page Titled (A) Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose. WCAG 2.0 2.4.2 Page Titled Techniques and Failures
  2.4.3 Focus Order (A) If a Web page can be navigated sequentially and the navigation sequences affect meaning or operation, focusable components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability. WCAG 2.0 2.4.3 Focus Order Techniques and Failures
  2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context) (A) The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general. WCAG 2.0 2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context) Techniques and Failures
  2.4.5 Multiple Ways (AA) More than one way is available to locate a Web page within a set of Web pages except where the Web Page is the result of, or a step in, a process . WCAG 2.0 2.4.5 Multiple Ways Techniques and Failures
  2.4.6 Headings and Labels (AA) Headings and labels describe topic or purpose. WCAG 2.0 2.4.6 Headings and Labels Techniques and Failures
  2.4.7 Focus Visible (AA) Any keyboard operable user interface has a mode of operation where the keyboard focus indicator is visible. WCAG 2.0 2.4.7 Focus Visible Techniques and Failures
2.5 Input Modalities: Make it easier for users to operate functionality through various inputs beyond keyboard. 2.5.1 Pointer Gestures (A) All functionality that uses multipoint or path-based gestures for operation can be operated with a single pointer without a path-based gesture, unless a multipoint or path-based gesture is essential.

Note: This requirement applies to web content that interprets pointer actions (i.e. this does not apply to actions that are required to operate the user agent or assistive technology).
WCAG 2.1 2.5.1 Pointer Gestures Techniques and Failures
  2.5.2 Pointer Cancellation (A) For functionality that can be operated using a single pointer, at least one of the following is true:

•No Down-Event: The down-event of the pointer is not used to execute any part of the function;
•Abort or Undo: Completion of the function is on the up-event, and a mechanism is available to abort the function before completion or to undo the function after completion;
•Up Reversal: The up-event reverses any outcome of the preceding down-event;
•Essential: Completing the function on the down-event is essential.

Note: Functions that emulate a keyboard or numeric keypad key press are considered essential.

Note: This requirement applies to web content that interprets pointer actions (i.e. this does not apply to actions that are required to operate the user agent or assistive technology).
WCAG 2.1 2.5.2 Pointer Cancellation Techniques and Failures
  2.5.3 Label in Name (A) For user interface components with labels that include text or images of text, the name contains the text that is presented visually.

Note: A best practice is to have the text of the label at the start of the name.
WCAG 2.1 2.5.3 Label in Name Techniques and Failures
  2.5.4 Motion Actuation (A) Functionality that can be operated by device motion or user motion can also be operated by user interface components and responding to the motion can be disabled to prevent accidental actuation, except when:

•Supported Interface: The motion is used to operate functionality through an accessibility supported interface;
•Essential: The motion is essential for the function and doing so would invalidate the activity.
WCAG 2.1 2.5.4 Motion Actuation
3.1 Readable: Make text content readable and understandable. 3.1.1 Language of Page (A) The default human language of each web page can be programmatically determined. WCAG 2.0 3.1.1 Language of Page Techniques and Failures
  3.1.2 Language of Parts (AA) The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined except for proper names, technical terms, words of indeterminate language, and words or phrases that have become part of the vernacular of the immediately surrounding text. WCAG 2.0 3.1.2 Language of Parts Techniques and Failures
3.2 Predictable: Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways. 3.2.1 On Focus (A) When any component receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context. WCAG 2.0 3.2.1 On Focus Techniques and Failures
  3.2.2 On Input (A) Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behavior before using the component. WCAG 2.0 3.2.2 On Input Techniques and Failures
  3.2.3 Consistent Navigation (AA) Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user. WCAG 2.0 3.2.3 Consistent Navigation Techniques and Failures
  3.2.4 Consistent Identification (AA) Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently. WCAG 2.0 3.2.4 Consistent Identification Techniques and Failures
3.3 Input Assistance: Help users avoid and correct mistakes. 3.3.1 Error Identification (A) If an input error is automatically detected, the item that is in error is identified and the error is described to the user in text. WCAG 2.0 3.3.1 Error Identification Techniques and Failures
  3.3.2 Labels or Instructions (A) Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input. WCAG 2.0 3.3.2 Labels or Instructions Techniques and Failures
  3.3.3 Error Suggestion (AA) If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content. WCAG 2.0 3.3.3 Error Suggestion Techniques and Failures
  3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data) (AA) For Web pages that cause legal commitments or financial transactions for the user to occur, that modify or delete user-controllable data in data storage systems, or that submit user test responses, at least one of the following is true:

1. Reversible: Submissions are reversible.
2. Checked: Data entered by the user is checked for input errors and the user is provided an opportunity to correct them.
3. Confirmed: A mechanism is available for reviewing, confirming, and correcting information before finalizing the submission.
WCAG 2.0 3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data) Techniques and Failures
4.1 Compatible: Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies. 4.1.1 Parsing (A) In content implemented using mark-up languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features.
Note: Start and end tags that are missing a critical character in their formation, such as a closing angle bracket or a mismatched attribute value quotation mark are not complete.
WCAG 2.0 4.1.1 Parsing Techniques and Failures
  4.1.2 Name, Role, Value (A) For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined ; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies.
Note: This success criterion is primarily for Web authors who develop or script their own user interface components. For example, standard HTML controls already meet this success criterion when used according to specification.
WCAG 2.0 4.1.2 Name, Role, Value Techniques and Failures
  4.1.3 Status Messages (AA) In content implemented using markup languages, status messages can be programmatically determined through role or properties such that they can be presented to the user by assistive technologies without receiving focus. WCAG 2.1 4.1.3 Status Messages Techniques and Failures
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